Whew! It’s been a busy couple of weeks in my photo-voltaic class. **I was starting to fear that I’d have to take a math class to keep up with all the formulas! **When I posted the first week’s lesson, I realized later that I’d given out misinformation, which is the danger of posting about something you don’t yet understand! So, **from this point out, I’ll just post the lessons after I’ve been tested in the contents,** that way you’re always getting the information someone has TOLD me I understand. Since we had a test this past weekend, **here’s a new dose of mathematical fun!**

**This week: Kirchoff’s Laws.** Last time, I discussed Ohm’s Law of DC power, which interrelated voltage, current, amperage, and power, and provided several formulas you can use to figure out any of the above for a circuit. If you’d like to review, check out the original post here. Now, let me repeat a few pertinent facts: a **series circuit is when you basically hook everything up in a big loop**, positive end to negative end in a chain. See the diagram below:

**A parallel circuit is one in which the positive and negative ends are “shunted” together** (parallel circuits are sometimes called shunts) creating a ladder effect. Again, see the diagram below:

**Series circuits are called voltage divider circuits**, because though a common current flows across the wire, at each stop along the way, voltage is dropped. These are two important concepts: **1. current is common. 2. voltage is divided along the circuit.** Parallel circuits are the opposite. Though a common voltage flows through all the wires, the current is divided between the different potential paths. Therefore, **in a parallel circuit, 1. voltage is common, and 2. current is divided along the circuit**. Series circuits are called “voltage dividers” and parallel circuits are called “current dividers”. VERY IMPORTANT is you want to know how to manipulate these circuits later on.

There are even two formulae which will help you to calculate a voltage or current at any particular point along a circuit. Say you have three resistors along your circuit. In a **series circuit**, a voltage divider, if you want to know the voltage of resistor “b”, you would use the **voltage divider formula: Erb = Et (Rb/Rt)**, where t represents total and Er is the voltage drop. Here’s an example:

In a series circuit with a total resistance of 100 Ohms, and a voltage of 120V, resistor b has a resistance of 25 Ohms. The total voltage drop across resistor b would be:

Erb = 120 v ( 25 Ohms / 100 Ohms ) = 30 V

Now, if you aren’t sure what the resistance of a particular resistor on the circuit is, then **Kirchoff’s Law of Voltage (for series circuits only!) comes into play**. His law states that the **total voltage minus the voltage of each resistor, etc on the circuit will always equal zero**. In other words, the Total Voltage equals the sums of all the voltage drops along the path. Here’s the official equation: **Et – E1 – E2 – … – En = 0**, where the circuit has n resistors. So if you know that one resistor has a voltage drop of 25 v and the third has a voltage drop of 50 v, and the total voltage is 130 v, then 130 – 25 – E2 – 50 = 0, and E2 = 55 v. Got it?

Now, on to **parallel circuits**, ones you’ll see a lot of in battery configurations. Because parallel circuits are current dividers, they need a separate formula for figuring out current drops around the circuit. This is called the **Current Divider Formula** (using Current at Resistor b): **Ib = It ( Rt / Rb )**. As with the voltages of a series circuit, if you need to know the current drop at a particular point, Kirchoff had a law for that, too. It’s called **Kirchoff’s Current Law (for parallel circuits)**, and it states that the total current minus the current drops along the way, equals zero. So **It – I1 – I2 – … – In = 0**, where the circuit has n resistors.

Now, this is a LOT of information to absorb, especially in practice, so let me stop here for now, and we’ll pick up here tomorrow with the rest of the lesson. It seems like way too formulas to ever be useful, but once you get to solving practical equations with them, it’s not too bad. **But let’s save that for the next lesson**, sleep on it, and I’ll see you in class tomorrow~